Chapter 2 : Memory


In this section you will be exposed to what memory really is and subcategories of the same.

  • There are two types of memory which can either be long or short term. The latter is usually forgotten after it has served its purpose, while long-term memory stays with the person throughout his/her lifetime.
  • Memory is ones ability to conveniently store, preserve and recall certain information as well as experiences. Conventional studies related to memory started in the area of philosophy; and they comprised procedures of artificially boosting memory.

Classes of Memory

Memory can be subdivided into three respective echelons which include sensory, short & long term ranks. Sensory memory roughly corresponds to the preliminary 300 milliseconds subsequent to perceiving an object. The capacity to glance at a substance then remember exactly how it appeared within a second is a good illustration of sensory recall at work.

Short term recollection allows one to remember only for a limited duration, not exceeding two minutes. And there are no rehearsals required here. Contemporary estimates regarding the aptitude of short-term recollection is low, generally averaging on about 4 to 5 small items. Nonetheless, memory capacity may be improved via a process known as ‘chunking.’

Many scholars believe that this kind of memory is chiefly dependant on particular acoustic codes vital for storage of such kinds of information, visual codes may also be applicable here but to a minor extent.

In contradiction, LTM can store quite large proportions of information for remarkably unlimited time duration which can be the individual’s entire lifespan. Its storage capacity is also incredibly great.

Many people believe that the different sections of memory are correlated in one way or another.

It is generally believed that technique and depth of actual processing are the major determinants of how experiences are stored up in ones memory, which is slightly different from rehearsal.

  • Organization. Psychologists have identified that it’s much simpler to memorize information that has been subcategorized than random data. For instance, it’s much easier to recite alphabetical letters when arrange from A-Z than it is on the reverse.
  • Distinctiveness. When information is associated in a distinctive manner rather than the regular way it would be much easier to remember. Loudly spelling out words is more memorable than when you just read information from a list.
  • Effort. Memory is best retained when one puts more effort towards understanding certain information. The more you practice the better your recalling ability.
  • Elaboration. People tend to recall descriptive paragraphs more than ambiguous sentences.

Categorization by Nature Of Information

There are some memory oriented scholars who have divided long-term recollection into declarative and also procedural subcategories. Declarative memory necessitates conscious recall. There are particular conscious procedures that need to call back certain information in the mind for proper storage. This is at times referred to as explicit memory because it comprises information which is openly stored and repossessed.

  • Declarative memory may also be categorized into semantic & episodic memory. The latter comprises data specific to set contexts like place or time, while semantic memory is concerned with facts that are used from autonomous contexts.
  • Semantic recollection permits one to encode abstract information concerning the world, like ‘London is the administrative capital of England.’ On the contrary, episodic memory is utilized in individual memory recollection on issues like emotions, sensations and also individual correlation of certain venues or time.
  • Autobiographical memory is related to an individual’s episodic events that are difficult to be eliminated from memory, like your wedding eve or honeymoon. This form of visual memory generally results in actual priming plus it’s assumed there’s some perceptual demonstrational system which underlies this particular phenomenon.
  • Topographical memory refers to ones capacity to appropriately be oriented in a set space; consequently one would distinguish and then tag along an itinerary, as well as distinguish familiar settings.
Methods of Memory Optimization
  • Memorization refers to a system of learning which permits one to recall data in verbatim. Rote tutorial is the technique that’s used in this mode of memory recollection.
  • To improve memory there are certain loosely connected sets of mnemonic ideologies and techniques which can be utilized to drastically enhance ones memory in standard memory art. These include healthy eating, stress reduction and physical fitness amongst others. Brain teasers along with verbal reminiscence tutorial procedurals will also be of great assistance. Researchers have indicated that with such coaching it would only take14 days for one to show improved word fluency, along with memory.
  • However, you should supplement the above discussed procedurals with activities that increase blood flow to your brain such as reading and actively socializing. Reduce amount of stress that you have to improve on your memory. Stay away from emotional unsteadiness, depression and also try to get some proper sleep for the best results.
Memory Tasks
  • Correspondence paired learning. This refers to a situation where one learns to relate a single word with significant others. For instance, when presented with one given word like ‘safe’ you will have to learn a corresponding remark like ‘green’ to stimulate automatic recollection of the two. This process occurs in a stimulus and rejoinder manner.
  • Free recalling. In this process, the subject shall be requested to study a certain list of statements then afterwards recall or in-script several words which they will be able to remember.
  • Recognition processes. Here, subjects are requested to recall a certain list of pictorials or words. Afterwards, they are requested to identify certain previously represented terminologies or pictorials that are set alongside a certain inventory of alternatives which weren’t there in the preexisting list.

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